Recommendations for IT provider

Anywhere supports the development of new tools or services to enhance self preparednes and protection. During the project, the partners therefore considered good practices and derived tools and guidelines to assist with self preparednes and protection and to open up new opportunities and enable new developments. Accordingly, the following guidelines regard regulations, laws and rights, especially focussing on data protection and ethics, but also detail possibilites to use current technology and modern, social-media enabled strategies, such as crowdsourcing and social communication. Finally, the guidelines also explain business models and their basics, while especially focussing on potential business models for self preparednes and protection and their implementation.

How to comply with EU Droughts strategy?

  • EU droughts strategy shall reduce potential waste of water and risk of droughts
  • All third party tools shall comply with the EU droughts strategy

How to comply with EU Floods Directive?

  • EU floods directive shall improve the coordination of flood prevention and reaction measures amongst member states
  • Third party tools shall be in line with the directive and may contribute to the goals
  • Tool developers may target stakeholder integration or information exchange in terms of flood mapping and predictions

How to comply with EU Forest Fires Action Plan?

  • EU forest fire action plan aims at combining efforts to reduce the risk and impact of forest fires on a pan-european scale
  • The plan includes efforts to monitor and protect forest against fires by implementing the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS)
  • Tool provider may align their efforts with the forest fire action plan to combine efforts and contribute to a risk and impact reduction

How to say the right thing at the right time: a guidance document to improve tools and services for self preparedness and self protection in extreme weather event – folding information

  • Strategic choice: for the Civil Protection it is important to have a simple and clear image to communicate
  • Visual language: The visual identity is based on some markers that produce a unique aspect of all Information

How to provide official information for private and public in different weather conditions?

  • Ways FMI informs security authorizies about extreme weather events
  • Structure of FMI Warning messages
  • When to increase Thread-level in Finland

How to enhance self-response of distribution companies during severe weather events?

  • ANYWHERE components supplied by A4Demos can be used to facilitate new services for improving self-p* for enterprises (e.g. in planning supply networks)
    • The impact of extreme weather onto supply networks can be assessed
    • Logistic chains can be adopted on the basis of scenarios
    • Operational performance of enterprises is improved and new business models are facilitated

How to say the right thing at the right time: a guidance document to improve tools and services for self preparedness and self protection in extreme weather event mayor decree for schools –

  • Activities to prepare schools (including children and parents) for major flood incidents

Guidelines

How to design a successful crowdsourcing initiative?

Crowd-sourcing initiatives can be set up by developing a Digital Response Network (DRN):

  • Collect basic information about the DRN (needs, solutions, risks and benefits) and comply to humanitarian and legal principles
  • Set up the network hub
  • Success factors are vision & strategy, infrastructure, usability, (acceptance and support by) external environment and control

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How to establish a collaboration with established crowdsourcing?

Collaboration with existing crowd-sourcing initiatives is dependent on the type of initiative

  • There are various types of crowd-sourcing initiatives
  • Consider best practices for taking into account the stages of crisis management
  • There are numerous key factors for successfully integrating existing digital response networks (vision & strategy, infrastructure, usability, (acceptance and support by) external environment and control)

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How to ensure effective communication of risk information, warnings and emergency messages?

  • Ensure understandable and usable messages for the public
  • Ensure that all of the population at risk, receive the risk/warning information and emergency messages
  • Ensure the timing and geographic specificity of the messages, to interrupt the public’s daily routine activities in favour of crisis-related preparedness and protection

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How to identify the most relevant timing to deliver emergency messages?

  • Interactive two-way communication is a key component of effective risk and crisis communication
  • Interactive communication during the crisis/response phase is interrelated to the use of social media

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How to promote interaction between authorities and the public?

  • Attract the population’s attention in the midst of daily life
  • Consider the location/situation of recipients.
  • Ensure the timing and geographic specificity of the messages

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How to conduct a Data Protection Impact Assessment?

  • For activities with high risk, i.e. the storage of personal data in a large scale, Data Protection Impact Assements (DPIAs) are required. For other activities, these are recommended.
  • These have to be carried out by the  Data Protection Officer (DPOs)
  • Components of a DPIA are: risk assessment, ensuring and securing information consent and the implementation of security protocols with respect to data collection routines and secured data storage

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How to include Data Protection by Design and by Default Tools?

  • General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) requires the implementation of data protection principles by design of tools
  • privacy-supporting specifications or privacy enhancing technologies shall be considered in the specification of tools
  • when required, technologies such as secure communication protocols or encryption as well as private searches of databases may be implemented during tool development

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How to designate a Data Protection Officer?

  • Applicable to all organizations and enterprises that process data on a large scale
  • The DPO has to be given the required resources to ensure the compliance of all
    activities with the GPDR
  • A Data Protection Impact Assessment (if required) has to be carried out by the DPO

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How to respect Data Protection Principles?

  • All services and products based on A4Demos have to comply with EU data protection principles
    • The General Data Protection Regulation has to be applied
    • Fundamentals are: purpose specification, lawfulness, fairness and transparency, data minimization, quality and security and storage limitation
    • The processing of sensitive data is prohibited

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How to respect Data Subject Rights?

  • Users’ data subjects rights have to be considered when designing tools and services for increasing self-p*
  • Individuals have the right to get any data stored erased
  • This right has to be considered against the public interest and further fundamental rights

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How to deal with the digital divide in emergency situations?

  • Digital Divide deals with potential difference in both, capabilities and potential access to digital infrastructure
  • Tool providers shall consider potential problems caused by digital divide
  • User needs should not only include the needs of persons capable of using digital technologies, but also of people groups not capable of doing so

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How to mitigate the potential for mass surveillance and to comply with the principle of self-determination?

  • When developing tools and services for increasing self-p*, the potential for mass surveillance has to be mitigated
  • Tool developers must consider the potential of their tools to cause new digital divide
  • Tool developers may conduct an ethical impact analysis

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How to comply with the principle of humanity?

  • Tool developers may consider the principle of humanity when developing
  • Standards for applying ICTs in disaster situations are not yet studied
  • Tool developers shall define their own “code of conduct” and assure alignment with existing ethical and legal aspects

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How to enhance trust in emergency response?

  • Especially in emergency situations, trust in communication is important
  • Tool providers shall prevent false alarms, regardless they are triggered automatically or by users
  • Ethical integrity of tools and their providers is important to establish a trustful relationship to users

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How to respect people’s right to access to risk and crisis information?

  • Tool developers have to ensure an access to information free of discrimination and other barriers
  • Single official voice principle is widely discussed but not compulsory
  • Tool providers have to ensure the receiving and understanding of provided information by all population groups including vulnerable groups

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How to ensure the non-discrimination and the protection of vulnerable groups?

  • Tool providers shall consider vulnerable population groups
  • Receiving and understanding of a message can be a problem
  • To solve this, tool developers may offer redundant dissemination channels to ensure receiving and understanding by each vulnerable group

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How to respect privacy in emergency situations?

  • Tool developers may sustain a “privacy by design” approach
  • Privacy enhancing technologies (anonymization) shall be applied whenever possible

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How to identify customer needs/ market demands?

How to specify Key Resources, Activities and Partners for a Business Model?

  • After having defined Value Proposition, Revenue Streams and all building blocks referring to the customer, assets, actions and partners required to deliver the value to the customer have to be defined
  • The assets, actions and partners can either be internal or external to the company offering the value proposition
  • Osterwalder’s Business Model canvas can be used to define these
  • The questions within the building block help to sharpen the definition

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How to identify procurement regulations?

  • Idenitification of procurement regulations in Europe
  • The purpose of regulations
  • rules into public procurement regulations
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How to develop Business Models for innovative products based on ANYWHERE components?

  • The value proposition is the initial starting point for business model development
  • To define the value proposition, the Value Proposition Canvas by Osterwalder can be applied
  • Hereby, the definition of both, value proposition and customer segements is facilitated

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How to define revenue streams for a Business Model to capture value?

  • After the definition of the value proposition and the identification of customer segments using the Value Proposition Canvas by Osterwalder, customer relationships and channels have to be defined
  • Osterwalder’s Business Model Canvas may be applied for defining these building blocks
  • The questions within the building blocks help to sharpen the definition of both

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How to build a cost structure suitable for the Business Model?

  • The cost structure defines the required costs for all assets, activities and partners required to deliver the value specified by the value proposition
  • All costs indispensable for the business model are specified here
  • Osterwalder’s Business Model canvas can be used to define the cost structure
  • The questions within the building block help to sharpen the definition

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How to use other business models or business model patterns for developing a Business Model?

  • For inspiration or the development of new business models, Gassmann’s Business Modell Patterns can be applied
  • These are patterns of similar business models which have proven to be successful.
  • Patterns were identified on an empirical basis
  • Tool developers may adapt or modifiy these patterns for their services or tools
  • Business model pattern cards can be used as a workshop tool

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How to define and maintain long and prosperous customer relationships?

  • After the definition of the value proposition and the identification of customer segments using the Value Proposition Canvas by Osterwalder, customer relationships and channels have to be defined
  • Osterwalder’s Business Model Canvas may be applied for defining these building blocks
  • The questions within the building blocks help to sharpen the definition of both
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Methods

There are several ways to observe users in their environment or during field trials with deviating effects for the observation. Observation is an important method to collect data about the “real world” and the “real needs” of users.

An observation during real incidents is not reasonable in most cases, but there are possibilities to get insight during training exercises.

Main differences in observation are the participating vs. non-participating observation and the direct vs. indirect observation. This includes various methods to collect data from the specific research field.

 

Interviews can be conducted in different ways. Interviews are an oral conversation between the interviewer and interviewee. It can be used to find out the views, experiences, motivations and the knowledge of the interviewee for collecting relevant information. Further interviews can be conducted as scenario-based interviews, self-regulated or narrative interviews and focus groups. Focus groups use group dynamics to generate qualitative data.

Creative methods are methods that support creative action. They focus on different ways of creativity and include techniques for idea generation. Brainstorming, Mind Mapping, Story Telling and Clustering are methods to follow creative paths.

Context analysis is a method used to analyse processes and provide contextual factors that might affect its implementation and sustainability. Context analysis can be conducted in different ways: Scenario Analysis, Process Analysis, Cause and Effect Diagrams and Task Analysis.

 

Requirements analysis and classification is a crucial part of the development, implementation and integration of new processes and technology. The methods provided here aim to determine and prioritize requirements placed in a project. These requirements can arise from the project’s or general context, such as laws and contracts, but from stakeholders in general as well.

Each methods belonging to this category will be used after a concrete concept is available or the prototype of the product has been completed. Within the test of the temporary solution the user is able to check design and the functions and makes a statement regarding to the usability, clarity, and also missing features. Examples for methods that belong to this phase are user value test, usability test, user journey and eye tracking.

The following templates can be used as a guide and reference for interviews and observations:

ANYWHERE Scenario Tool

For successful innovation of tools supporting self-preparedness and self-protection, strategic planning for new tools and services is fundamental. The work within the ANYWHERE consortium aims at the enhancement of capabilities of tool providers for strategic planning to ensure their success in developing new tools. To support your ambition for launching new products based on ANYWHERE components, a holistic support approach towards scenario planning has been developed for anticipating future technological and market developments. Therewith, the potential of innovations based on ANYWHERE components can be levered.

To support strategic planning, the agile process model of scenario-technique has been developed. Consisting of seven process steps, the agile process model will support your ambition in strategic planning to ensure the success of novel tools and services based on ANYWHERE components.

You will be guided through the process in a self-explanatory manner. After defining the purpose and scope of the scenarios, a set of generic influence factors is provided. To reduce complexity, the method supports you in selecting the most critical influence factors. You may also add further individual factors if you wish to. Influence factors and their potential future developments are influential to your tool and service. To reduce complexity, the method supports you in selecting the most critical influence factors. You may also add further individual factors if you wish to. For each of these key influence factors, a set of potential future developments is offered. Meaningful future scenarios have to be consistent potential representations of the future. Therefore, consistency between the projections is assessed within the phase “consistency assessment”. A generic set of consistency assessments reduces the required effort for applying the method. All scenarios are then combined. The selection of meaningful scenarios is supported by selection rules developed as a part of the ANYWHERE project. Potential impact of disruptive event is done in the last phase of scenario-technique. As a result, future market or technological scenarios will be provided in an easy to use, step-by-step and DIY-approach enhancing the success of your ambition to develop innovative tools based on ANYWHERE components.

Data Model

The method is implemented in a stand-alone software, the ANYWHERE scenario tool. Guiding you through the scenario process step-by-step, all relevant information is available within the ANYWHERE scenario-tool. The tool allows the addition of further influence factors (complementing the set of 65 generic influence factors provided) for a more individual scenario development. Scenarios can be easily exported into a workshop-compatible (MS Office) format and then be used for improving your strategic planning.

 

 

To reduce the effort for developing the scenarios, relevant data has been elicidated as a part of the work in ANYWHERE. A set of 65 generic influence is provided as a starting point for scenario development. Relevant assessment of the influences and consistencies were investigated and are provided within the ANYWHERE scenario tool. Hereby, the effort for strategic planning can be reduced.

 

The ANYWHERE scenario tool offers an easy to use, step-by-step approach. By doing strategic planning by applying the agile process model of strategic planning in a DIY-manner, you can easily develop scenarios without external expertise. A set of generic influence factors including all relevant data and consistency values is already contained within the ANYWHERE scenario tool.

Thereby, the potential success of your tool supporting self-preparedness and self-protection can be enhanced – with only a little effort compared to conventional approaches towards scenario-technique.

The ANYWHERE scenario-tool is a stand-alone and DIY-approach towards strategic planning. The holistic approach contains not only the methodological support, but also relevant data for strategic planning. If you are interested in using the ANYWHERE scenario-tool or require further information, please do not hesitate to contact us.

Contact:

Paderborn University |Product Creation

Jens Pottebaum | +49 5251 606258 | jens.pottebaum@hni.upb.de

Philipp Scholle | +49 5251 606263 | Philipp.scholle@hni.upb.de

ANYCaRE Game

Though the potential advantages of single ANYWHERE components can be validated and evaluated as part of the MH-EWS, and available on the A4DEMOS platform, the diffusion of these advantages to third-party tool providers but also to other stakeholder like citizen and companies is important. To outline the advantages of the ANYWHERE components and to make these more visible, a round based simulation game – the ANYWHERE Crisis and Risk Experiment (AnyCaRE) – has been developed. In this serious game, the scenario of an extreme weather event and the impact is simulated. In a first round, the event is handled without the ANYWHERE components. Followed by a second round where ANYWHERE components are implemented, the potential benefit of the application is outlined for potentially interested users.

ANYWHERE Crisis and Risk Experiment (ANYCaRE) is primarily developed to obtain conclusions on “if “and “how” an improved multi-model forecast output can support the decision chain in European warning systems towards better responses. The multi-model output provided in ANYWHERE platform includes information on i) live data on exposure and vulnerability derived from social media and crowdsourcing (WP4); ii) innovative self-preparedness and self-protection tools (WP5); iii) impact assessments and maps (WP6). ANYCaRE is first designed as a tabletop role-playing game (or pen-and-paper role-playing game) for adults in which participants act their role through speech while sitting in a comfortable setting (Cover 2005). Especially, we benefit from researchers, developers, and potential users and other stakeholders meeting frequently to define needs, capabilities and limitations in the frame of ANYWHERE project. Participants play the game exploring uncertainties and dilemmas embedded in the real-time warning and emergency response processes.

ANYCaRE aims to serve as a communication tool to i) enhance participants’ understanding of the weather-related decision-making complexities (e.g., forecasting/warnings, official emergency actions, self-protection); ii) facilitate collaboration and coordination between players who have distinct field of expertise and belong to various national or local agencies/authorities across Europe.

Participants are invited to play the roles of different actors of the warning system in order to decide about emergency actions to be taken in response to the threat of a weather hazard (here flooding) in a European context. The roles to be played and the potential decisions/actions to be chosen by the players are pre-defined based on qualitative evidence gathered during the ANYWHERE’s pilot site workshops that took place in March and April 2017.

Experiment set up

ANYCaRE is designed to simulate one or more of the three main levels in the warning-system decision chain (i.e., 3 groups of roles to be played in the game) illustrated in Figure 1: i) Level 1: Weather Forecasters; ii) Level 2: Emergency managers/Authorities in charge of civil protection; iii) Level 3: General public and targeted users (private companies). Depending on the role group (e.g., forecasters, emergency managers, and citizens), we propose a series of realistic constrains and targets and we invite participants to choose some action(s) from a given list of options. Every group should be preferably played with 10 to 15 players.

Then, emergency managers evaluate the situation and decide what to do based on the forecasters’ inputs and their own assessment of the level of exposure, potentially supported by impact-based products and crowd-sourced information. The members of the general public may decide for their own self-protective actions based on their personal constraints by considering or ignoring the information communicated by Level 1 and/or Level 2. Although interaction between the various decision levels is an interesting component in ANYCaRE, as mentioned above, the game is designed in a way that independent game sessions can be also played for each role group, separately. To do so, the GM or another auxiliary non-player person provides relevant information required as inputs for the decision-making in the group.

Inspired by European case studies we introduce “Anywhere City”; an imaginary agglomeration located at the foot of highlands drained by two fast-reaction rivers and three distinct areas: A, B and C.  (See figure below)

Many parts of the city are exposed to flooding of small to medium size catchments (few km2 to few hundred km2) with responses time ranging from few minutes to few hours, respectively. Area A is a mountainous residential area in a small basin. It is a flood prone zone close to the forest where campsites are located. Area B is the main urban area where the majority of schools, hospitals and other public services are located. Finally, area C surrounds the main bridge of Anywhere City. This includes a recreation place where the annual fall festival of Anywhere City named “AnyDay” is taking place. Areas B and C belong to bigger catchments with slower reaction.

Once the game moderator or master (GM) presents the storyline and the initial conditions in the city by assigning to the group a certain amount of

  • citizens’ safety credits;
  • citizens’ wellness credits;
  • tokens (budget),

each player is provided with a sub-role defining his responsibility during the game. The game master provides and comments medium-range deterministic precipitation forecasts produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and hydrological forecasts in order to get the players familiar with the products and slowly put them in the context. Each of the three following days represents one round of the game for which collective decisions (selecting from the decision-reporting list) are requested from the players. By using three rounds we allow the players to experience evolving hydro-meteorological facets and test different decision-support tools, which give more and more accurate information as it gets closer to the event occurrence.

Each game round the players receive updated probabilistic forecasts for precipitation (mm) and river discharge (m3/s and the corresponding return period) as well as contextual information for each of the areas A, B, and C. These data mainly refer to flood early warning products released by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS); the first operational European system monitoring and forecasting floods across Europe (Smith et al. 2016). As a second trial the players get new ANYWHERE products  including improved probabilistic impact-based forecasts, risk assessments and ground observations from social media, and are given the opportunity to rethink and modify their decision if necessary. Collective decisions are recorded by filling up one worksheet for the all group in each game day. The game-designers’ team acts as observers of the playing process and based on their observations they facilitate the post-experiment debriefing.